Monday, November 21, 2011

How can the one cell specific cells like liver kidney heart skin and other things?

in the time of create the zygot of human the sperm and the egg forming one cell and this cell dividing to many cells to form the emberyo what the reason that make these cells after that specific like liver or heart or kidney or nervous or skin or hair

How can the one cell specific cells like liver kidney heart skin and other things?
We now a fair bit more about this in fruit flies.

Basically, the fruit fly ovum starts out asymetrical, with regard to concentrations of certain mRNAs. So one end has a lot of thsoe mRNAs, and the other end does not,

Then, as the cell starts dividing, depending on how far along that axis a cell is, it gets determined what kind of organ it is going to form. One end becomes the head and, and the other, the tail end. This is called the anterior-posterior axis. This determination is governed by genes called Hox genes, and humans have them too. The other exis, the dorsal ventral axis, is determined some other way.

In humans, it's pretty obvious how the dorsal-ventral axis is established: wherever you attach to the placenta, that's your ventral side.

So basically, the position of a cell along those two axes determines what mRNA it receives in the beginning of development, and that mRNA sets up the ultimate fate of those cells.
Reply:The answer is "Stem Cells" - These are cells that can become any cell in the human body (i.e. muscle cells, neuron cells, liver cell, etc...) The coding in our DNA tells these cells what they need to become and when they need to become them. That is why you hear so much about stem cells in the news and in scientific circles - some people think that if we can figure out how to make these stem cells form certain organs or specific cells that we could cure many diseases (i.e diabetes, Parkinson's)
Reply:The zygote divides by mitosis into the morula which is essentially a undifferentiated ball of cells the morula further divides into the blastula. The blastula invaginates to form a primitive gut this stages is known as the gastrula and is the point at which the 3 layers of the exoderm mesoderm and endoderm form. These are the 3 layers which all other tissues of the body develop from as well as the placenta in mammals. The organs develop from their respective layers and chemical messengers from surrounding cells drive this differentiation.

How does it feel while having the tattoo done on your skin???

I understand that every human being have different pain levels, but i would like to know what is the feeling when the tattoo is done onto their skin... I might want to get a tattoo soon....

How does it feel while having the tattoo done on your skin???
Where else would you have one, but on your skin? Seriously, it actually feels kinda hot, unless they're tattooing where bone or nerves are close to the skin - then it starts to get painful. You find that you tend to sweat quite a bit - specially being tattooed for upwards of 2 hours.

My advice - go for it, but choose a tattoo you KNOW you live with.
Reply:I got one on my lower back. It kinda felt like a cat dragging their claw reeeeeeeeeal slow. Don't goes numb after a little while. No big whoop.
Reply:I know people who have gotten them done on various places on the body and everyone agrees that the amount of pain depends on where you get the tat. Personally - I have one tattoo on my left butt cheek, more towards the hip area, which is meaty. I described the pain like this: Take you fingernail and press it really hard into you skin then drag it along... It's not THAT bad. My tattoo is of a little gecko and when they were doing his little finger pads it hurt more because the needle was tracing over the same spots over and over because the litle pads were close together. Don't let the pain keep you form getting it sone. I was so scared right before mine (I am such a big baby for pain) and I almost backed out of it. I'm so glad I didn't. Just make sure you have a friend with you for support and to squeeze their hand when the artist is doing those tender spots.
Reply:Consider what it is that is happening, a needle is repeatedly punching into the skin to drag ink down into the hole made by the needle. This will cause some amount of pain and bruising. As with any other wound to your skin, it will bleed somewhat (not much, but there will be some small amount of bleeding since the needle punches down to living tissue where capillaries exist which will be damaged and leak blood.) and scab over. The amount of pain you experience will vary with the location, as your skin is not equally sensitive all over your body.
Reply:feels like a needle stabbing your skin
Reply:It feels like someone is scratching your skin and they wont stop!! It doesnt hurt too bad, its just really annoying.
Reply:Everlasting cat scratch
Reply:depends on where you want it, I have one on my hip that I cried the whole time and the others I have I fell asleep during, the outline is harder than the fill in. It hurts some but I thought it kinda tickles too.
Reply:Depends on where you get it. I have two on my feet, one on my toe, one on the top of my foot, they both hurt, but the one on my toe was the worst. I have one on the back of my neck and it just felt like someone was writing on me with one of those vibrating ink pens. I have one on my hip and it felt like someone was scratching me, but it all goes numb after a while. It's not as painful as some people make it out to be. The one on my toe felt like a scratching and pinching kind of pain, it was the worst one but I never shed a tear and I was still able to giggle and laugh through it. You have to remember, there's a needle moving at a rapid pace and it's going up and down into your skin, it won't be painless but it won't be agony either.
Reply:to me it didn't feel like a needle. Think of it this way...the outline is 4-6 needles at the same time going in to your skin at a rate of almost 250 per second. The shading needles are about the same speed except they are set up in a row shape rather than a circular shape and there are usually more...up to 14 needles at one time. Because of the speed, it doesn't feel like a needle....more like a stinging kind of...and you feel a little pressure.

For me, it did sting but it wasn't AS bad as I thought it was going to be. I expected to be running out of there screaming half way through the tattoo. :)

It also depends on where you're getting the tattoo. Mine is on my lower back on the side...there's no bone there...I've heard that makes a significant difference. Getting an addition to it in a couple of months and it's a tiny bit closer to the spine so i'm kinda worried about that. :)

Pain level - I'm usually pretty wimpy and don't think of myself as having a very high pain tolerance. But I also built up the pain so much and was so worried about it that I didn't realize that he started the tattoo and I was still sitting there waiting for him to start.

Best of luck!
Reply:I have one on my calf. It felt exactly like a bee sting that lasted for about 15 minutes %26amp; I was fairly nauseated. It did go numb after a while.

If you really want your tattoo, the pain is worth it. Just don't build the pain up in your mind before you have it done. No pain is worse than what your imagination can do anticipating it.
Reply:At first it felt like a low burning sensation, then came the annoying "cat scratches". There are a few moments of true pain, but nothing the average joe can't handle. Go for it! It is not nearly as bad as I thought it would be!

What is the white WAXY residue that GRAPES have over their skin?

Could someone tell me the properties (chemicals, infection figthing effects, pesticidal effects, etc..) of the waxy (white in appearance) residue that grapes have over their skin which is thought to minumise the loss of moisture.

A very credulous friend of mine says that it holds something in it that my fend of cancer. Which I personaly think is a load of ****.

Their source for this information is a "herbalist", an obvious redflag.

So if anyone could shed light on what this substance is, and if it could have any possitive or negative effect on the human body.

My intuative guess is that it is benign. Though I'd rather hear from someone who knows what they are talking about.

Thank you.

What is the white WAXY residue that GRAPES have over their skin?
You pretty much already answered your own question, it's cuticular wax secreted by the grape. It's not that complicated chemically, mostly made of of routine alcohols and fatty acids along with about 30% cyclic terpenoid oleanolic acid. I think you could get about the same health benefit from eating candles, just make sure they aren't lit :)

And yes again, you're also right in that the main function of this wax is to limit moisture loss from the grape, but it also serves to protect the grape from pathogens.

Now the cuticle if the grape, the living membrane that surrounds the grape, is whole different deal, very complex chemically and there are lots of different things in the cuticle that could impact human health.
Reply:I found more information on "oleanolic acid" at and it would seem it is not quite as benign as candle wax ;). Though I am sceptical of its properies to humans outside the tests on lab mice. Report It

Reply:Comparing diets among western countries, researchers have discovered that although the French tend to eat higher levels of animal fat, surprisingly the incidence of heart disease remains low in France.[1] This phenomenon has been named the French Paradox. Many scientists now believe the reason is the greater consumption of red wine in France. Something in the grape helps to lower cholesterol levels in the body and thus slows the build up of deposits in the arteries. Compounds such as resveratrol (a polyphenol antioxidant) have been discovered in grapes and these have been positively linked to fighting cancer, heart disease, degenerative nerve disease and other ailments. Doctors do not recommend excessive consumption of red wine, but three or four glasses a week is beneficial and encouraged.

Red or not, grapes of all colors offer comparable benefits. Red wine offers health benefits not found in white wine, because many of the beneficial compounds are found in the skins of the grapes, and only red wine is fermented with the


Resveratrol is produced by several plants, apparently for its antifungal properties. It is found in widely varying amounts in grapes, primarily the skins and seeds. This is particularly true for muscadine grapes, whose skin and seeds have about one hundred times the concentration as the pulp.

To prevent moisture loss.
Reply:pesticide-wash your grapes before eating!:)


Why do people say that the only difference between the races is just skin color? Are they stupid?

I often hear people say that the only difference between the races is skin color. This statement shows a stunning level of ignorance about science and history. There are hundreds of scientifically provable differences between the races. These include hair texture, bone structure, muscle structure, skin thickness, hormone levels, resistence levels to certain deseases, average intelligence, etc., etc., etc. The list is too long to type out here.

In fact, a Poodle and a Doberman Pinscher are more closely related genetically than a white and black person are. This is a scientific fact, but you don't hear anyone say that the only differece between a Poodle and a Doberman Pinscher is the color of their fur. So why do people continue say this b.s. when it comes to the different human races? Does living in a fantasy world make them feel better? Or did they hear that phrase on TV and because they have no critical thinking ability, they were stupid enough to believe it?

Why do people say that the only difference between the races is just skin color? Are they stupid?
Albino blacks look different from whites! I do not know what they are talking about.
Reply:NO they are not stupid. They see the world like it is. ... through rose colored glasses. We all are from one common thread.
Reply:I think there is only one race. The human race. We can all mate with each other, just like the dogs you mention. A lot of what people suffer from is cultural difference and blind hate that was passed down to them. I know, as you do that we have differences. I don't care enough about them to differentiate.
Reply:I learned something today.
Reply:*Race* is a sociological construct.

*Ethnicity* is genetic and often determines skin color, hair texture, etc.

However, it has been shown again and again that intelligence tests are biased toward a certain culture, so there is really no accurate measure of intelligence by either race OR ethnicity. Intelligence is also dependent on a host of other factors unrelated to genetics.

Your dog example is incorrect. Dogs have been genetically hybridized to create different breeds for several centuries. Humans are more closely related, regardless of ethnicity, and you don't need critical thinking skills to figure that out--just use your eyes.
Reply:A baby born anywhere, raised by a community of a different race grows up a member of that new race. His genetics may set him aside but race is also very much a matter of culture and conditioning. Yes many things set us all apart. But that's also been the reason for a lot of hate in this world. People are not as stupid as you think. They want us all to realise, for all that is different between us, we have much more things in common. A Poodle, a Doberman have more in common being dogs than they are different as separate breeds. So if I had to sum all my beliefs in a single sentence for the general public to take away, it'd say we're of different colours..
Reply:please get educated.....there is only ONE race of humans and that is (yes, you guessed it) the HUMAN RACE.......everything else is genetical differences just like difference between you and your friends....taller, shorter, faster, slower, paler, darker, hair color has NOTHING to do with the so called "races"....we are all genetically different and it is just that human nature is to focus on the differences that are most visually apparant.....if all people over 6' tall were to live in a group for the past 100 years, then you would be inclined to think of them as a seperate race...please stop letting your eyes make you so blind and realize all the differnces you point out are YES, differnces and factual, but NOT because of some so called "race".... if your friend has same color skin but has different bone structure, hair color, etc. as you suggested above , then i wager you would STILL consider that person of the same 'race" simply because of the color of thier skin...why do our eyes make us so blind?
Reply:We are all different; however, there are only seventeen

genetic dimorphism's between the Caucasians, Mongoloid, *******, Aboriginal, and Aleutian peoples. None of which suggest one group is collectively inferior or superior over another, or of any vastly significant advantage or consequence.
Reply:The fact still remains a poodle and a doberman my look very different... but at the end of the day they are both still dogs. Black, White. Red what ever the race... we are all humans. Although there may be some differences in our hair and bone structure who's to say one is better than the other. You may like dobermans...I like poodles... we both like dogs... I guess it's all in the eye of the beholder..The fact is you are hating a member of the Human race based sole on subjected reasoning. Regardless your believe you can't deny the fact that blacks are as human as a poodle is a dog.
Reply:All of us, no matter what races came from Adam and Eve. The main reason for God to create us with different races are for us to know and learn about each other. Not to have prejudice or to believe that our race is superior than others...we are all God's creation....After death we will go to heaven or hell, depends on our practice during our life, not because we are black, white, yellow or brown. God never judge peolple based on color....
Reply:People say that bc that is the first and obvious difference between people. If you want to be technical then EVERYONE not just specific races are different genetically, from bone structure all the way to average intellegence. What it is people are noting the obvious, not disecting each race and culture. When you look at someone do you automically start thinking that they are genetically superior with intellegence and have better bone structure? No you take notice of the race and then you start looking at them from a cultural stand point. Besides why does it matter we are all of the same SPECIES and are all made the same way so why the concern on peoples simple thought processes? I think someone needs to take a chill pill when it comes to these issues.
Reply:But aren't our hearts all one color, do we bleed the same? I'm really starting to understand why some black people hate whites %26amp; for that I'm really sorry

Are you ready to get a chip implanted under your skin?

I wouldn't mind getting a computer chip implanted under my skin just as long as it remained voluntary and was done by the VeriChip company.

I feel that the positives of this amazing technology would outweigh any negatives and would ultimately lead us human beings and animals into a far better existence. :)

Are you ready to get a chip implanted under your skin?
Many pets already have chips with information and some leaders have proposed that children get them as a means of security. I see the issue much like the national identity card. The backlash has been stiff for a common card however I see no problem in streamlining information which is already available.

Thus I suspect, the biggest obstacle is paranoia. Yet, I would not mind the chip at all. It might just save my life with the listing of my medical history during an emergency

Lastly, the chip could be your voice when you are unable to speak for yourself. Do you want your organs donated? Do you want ‘heroic” medical attention extending your life when you feel differently? Who is your closest contact in case of an emergency? Who are you? All this information could be listed.

Oh yes, I would take one.
Reply:Never will I take the mark of the beast. They are already doing it and many times it is involuntary. Just ask some of our miltary, they'll tell you about having things implanted in them that they had no knowledge of or having surgery and waking up only to have something put inside them that they didn't authorize. This isn't limited to military either. Welcome to the matrix and apparently you are willingly eating the garbage they are feeding. Do you work for the company selling this chip?
Reply:You can chip my cold dead body, But not before.
Reply:You have got to be kidding.If that wouldn't be enough for us to get off our asses than we deserve it.
Reply:Hello, paid shill!

We will eat your souls. ;P
Reply:After I am DEAD.
Reply:That would be cool. You wouldn't have to worry about carrying I.D. papers. Doctors could get yor med files instantly. Noone could steal your identity. Hell yea!
Reply:I am an intelligent human being, why would I voluntarily want a micro chip implant. Is it so if I get lost someone will know where I live.
Reply:No way, I don't even like the GPS in my cell phone.
Reply:While you're at it, why don't you let them wire your brain, tag you with an extra chip fro location verification at all times, and take you out for walks chained? do you change the batteries in those chips?
Reply:i disagree, as the most obvious negative is that taking the micro chip will send you straight to HELL! but, really, its up to you.
Reply:I see no problem with it if the government didn't force me to do it. It's great for people who get lost and can't find their way home and like awalk said if you are unable to give medical information if you're unconscious.

Chrisitians, If you all came from adam and eve, and how come you have different skin colors?

eve is a clone of adam, god took a rib from adam, and made it eve, therefore, adam and eve are like brother and sister or father and daughter, they committed serious incest when they had sex together,

if you think that you are a son or daughter of adam and eve, then you are officially a bastard according to the law; even that, that doesn't make sense why different christians have different skin colors

Additional Details

monkeys have different shapes and forms, so that is not a surprise that human have all forms according to the evolution.

but if you believe in that non-existing god, then your bible can't explain to us why your skin color is different than other people.

Chrisitians, If you all came from adam and eve, and how come you have different skin colors?
hey, its called evolution.
Reply:you make no sense. were you molested by a church official, or something, because though your logic is skewed, it is passionate. you so jaded Report It

Reply:if we all came from some single cell how did there get to be so many different species? Does that make sense? Your logic is flawless........

bastard = born out of wed lock, Adam and Eve were married....
Reply:I'm not christian. but i think it has something to do with genetic abnormalities...If I'm not mistaken, white skin is a genetic abnormality.
Reply:Nevermind. I had hopes that others would answer it.

See, the thing is that at the time the gene pool was not messed up via perfect. So in reality there was no real incest, and the same went for their kids. and then as time went on the gene pool messed up and God then told the people that it was wrong to do this, because it could cause problems.

So the thing about the races are the Tower of Babel. Now when God split them up, He sent them by the sons of Noah and if you will read you'll see that their names had meaning and it is accepted that where God sent them he also changed them into eurpoean, african and asian. then after time went on again these breeded and thus our world today

that is the explanatiion in lamen terms
Reply:And if all THAT in-breeding wasn't enough -- let us not forget that god FURTHER whittled down the gene pool when he murdered everyone except Noah and his family...
Reply:The different languages and races came into existence when God dispersed man throughout the earth, during the Tower of Babel incident.
Reply:Who knows...
Reply:well moron yes we can explain it.

see on the SIXTH Day of creation God created men and women and said "go and be fruitful and multiply upon the face of the earth and REPLENISH the earth"..

then God rested on the 7th day....THEN God created adam and there were races of people created BEFORE adam and eve! Get it moron?

archaeology proves this as well....many races....and the adamic race....get it putz? go back to 2nd grade and learn to read and stop your hate and bigotry and ignorance.
Reply:tower of Babel... man was trying to build a tower to heaven, god got pissed, changed everyone's language so they could no longer work together to build it. Everyone was confused. Some believe along with language change, came skin color change. I was raised Christian, no longer am.

P.S. My mother, who is both religous and racist, has a theory that when Cain slew Abel, and god cast him out, Cain asked that a mark be placed on him lest he be killed by the other people who resided in further parts of the world. My mother's theory is of course, that the mark was to make him black. She then believes these other people were monkeys and that's how evolution (and African Americans) fit into the whole Christian equation. Please remember that although she is my mother and I am her daughter we have very different viewpoints and I do not share many of her beliefs.

Since my mother is probably the only one in the world with this theory, another question that might get you thinking, is... Who were these other people that Cain was so afraid of? If Cain was the son of Adam and Eve, there should have been no one else around, except for his own brother's and sisters.

P.S.S. As far as James B, you are wrong. Genesis One gives a synopsis on what God created. Genesis 2 simply gives more details. In Genesis 2 it even states that after the 7th Day, God's work was done.

"And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made." Gen 2:2

It goes on to talk about how he created man and subsequently his creation of woman and how he named them Adam and Eve. They were the first according to good old King James
Reply:It's Cain's fault. He slew Abel and was cursed with a dark skin. That and cultural, environmental, and a host of other reasons.

My GOD! You have absolutely shattered my faith! I shall henceforth bow and praise you, oh wisdom of wisdom!

This sorta argument is pretty trite. Reread some of the old questions and save yourself 5 points.

My two cents.
Reply:interracial marriage, Adam and Eve were made in the image of God, and over years and centuries inter breeding causes different colored skin
Reply:There is really only one race—the human race.
Reply:Adam and Eve lived thousands of years ago and people since then have spread out to all these different places and adapted to thier enviroments through color and height change through micro-evolution.
Reply:Adam and Eve, most likely looked middle brown. They would have had a range of genetic information which would account for children from light to dark ( a lower or high amount of melanin). When the different and distinct races emerged, it was caused by a reduction (not an increase, thus not evolution) of genetic information. The tower of Babel would certainly have helped cause a break up of the gene pool.
Reply:" then your bible can't explain to us why your skin color is different than other people."

That's not really true. Regardless of where people STARTED (ie: garden of eden in the Christian tradition) they spread out. Different climates call for different skin tones. It's just adaptation.

Even the Catholic church (and the Pope) claim that it's okay to believe in evolution AS LONG AS you accept that God started the process.

"they committed serious incest when they had sex together,"

Have you actually read the Bible? There's incest all over the place in it. 6000 years ago (old testament) and 2000 years ago (new testament) incest was not a big deal. Even the current English royal family is the result of 100s of years of political inbreeding.

"if you think that you are a son or daughter of adam and eve, then you are officially a bastard according to the law;"

Not true. The term "bastard" refers to anyone who's parents were NOT MARRIED at the time of their birth. It has nothing to do with what relation the parents are to each other.

I realize that you're trying to "zing" Christians in a clever way and catch them out with all these questions. I'll also say that I'm NOT a Christian.

I do however, think that if you're trying to be "clever" and "get people" you should actually do some research before you ask your questions.
Reply:After the flood, and the famous tower of Babel, people were of different languages. The Bible says that people scattered over the face of the whole earth. Climate, my friend, climate.
Reply:ok, back to basic..whoat color is mud/clay? that is the first color of as the man skin is less expose to light..lighter the skin. if we came from chimp/apes..where are the talking one? where are the blond, and red head of the very same species of apes/chimp? there isn't any so therefore..we didn't come from accidental creation..if we are accidently created..why is there love..was it an accident to love another and protect?..what about ghost..demons..unexplain spiritual things..GOD is a spirit..made himself..a another speaking spirit..just like a Speaking Spirit..he wanted spoke of SIN..sin didn't not exist before the fall of man...MAN was god..under "THE GOD"..gen 1.26ect..said..ADAM..RULE the creatures i've created..

satan came in..and deived the weaker vessel..Iemotional is logical build..) is PERFECT%26gt;.but it not good for man to be he separated personality traces/nature..and Took of the WOMAN OUT of MAN%26gt;.S0 men..can be gay right here..anyway..all of woman in womand..all of man is man...GOD said..go populate and have dominion.(lord) over all of the creation HE did.

again..satan came..took..LORDSHIP of the earth..that hwy you came.and satan exploit it.

again..satan said to JESUS..bow down to me..and I will give you lordship of the that proves..satan does have LORDSHIP of the earth..NOW..jesus died and took it.a.nd rose rom the dead..because..those who GO to HELL..are sinners..JESUS..did not sin..he took sin..for our liberty of prison in by faith..of JESUS victory..we are delivered from going to hell.

again..reveiw..what color is MUD? as pigmentation is decreawse..different shade are revealed.

NOW..let not leave this out..the tower of Babel.

men's ego..of being 'GOD"..and in their unity..GOD divide men..and alter their thinking and spekaing..isn't that amazingly powerful??
Reply:Genetics, my friend.

At Babel, not only the languages were confused. Naturally people will go with others they can understand. People moved to different areas of the world...the gene pool thus divided, add a few centuries, and presto!

Dominant characteristics emerge.

How about that?

Think about it. Dominant features of Native Africans, dominant features of Native Americans, dominant features of Asians, etc.

See the picture I'm trying to show you?

It's all in the genes, when people divided because of the language barrier God made at Babel.

So I've mixed a little science with Bible knowledge. Sometimes, after all, science can get something right.
Reply:Virtually all evolutionists would now say that the various people groups did not have separate origins. That is, different people groups did not each evolve from a different group of animals. So they would agree with the biblical creationist that all people groups have come from the same original population. Most scientists now agree that, for modern humans, "race" has little or no biological meaning. This also argues strongly against the idea that the people groups have been evolving separately for long periods.

Of course, they believe that such groups as the Aborigines and the Chinese, have had many tens of thousands of years of separation which accounts for the races. But the DNA of any two people in the world would typically differ by just 0.2 percent.2 Of this, only 6 percent can be linked to racial categories; the rest is "within race" variation.

If all the people on earth were to intermarry freely, and then break into random groups that kept to themselves again, a whole new set of gene combinations could emerge in short order. It may be possible to have almond eyes with black skin, blue eyes with black, tightly curled hair, etc.
Reply:We all have the same basic skin color, just different amounts of it. (Not a very big difference, is it?) How long would it take to get all the variation in the amount of skin color we see among people today? A million years? No. A thousand years? No. Answer: just one generation!

Let’s see how that works. The amount of skin color we have depends on at least two pairs of genes. Let’s call these genes A and B. People with the darkest skin color have genes AABB as their genotype (set of genes for a trait); those with very light skins have aabb. People with two “capital-letter” genes would be “medium-skinned,” and those with one or three such genes would be a shade lighter or a shade darker.

Suppose we start with two medium-skinned parents, AaBb. Less than half (only 6 of the 16 combinations) would be medium-skinned like their parents. Four each would be a shade darker or lighter. One in 16 of the children of medium-skinned parents (AaBb) would have the darkest possible skin color (AABB), while the chances are also 1 in 16 that a brother or sister will have the very lightest skin color (aabb).

Starting with medium-skinned parents (AaBb), it would take only one generation to produce all the variation we see in human skin color today. In fact, this is the normal situation in India today. Some Indians are as dark as the darkest Africans, and some—perhaps a brother or sister in the same family—as light as the lightest Europeans. I once knew a family from India that included members with every major skin color you could see anywhere in the world.

But now notice what happens if human groups were isolated after creation. If those with very dark skins (AABB) migrate into the same areas and/or marry only those with very dark skins, then all their children will have very dark skins. (AABB is the only possible combination of AB egg and sperm cells, which are the only types that can be produced by AABB parents.) Similarly, parents with very light skins (aabb) can have only very light-skinned children, since they don’t have any A or B genes to pass on. Even certain medium-skinned parents (AAbb or aaBB) can get “locked-in” to having only medium-skinned children, like the Orientals, Polynesians, and some of my ancestors, the Native Americans.
Reply:You want to know why we all have different skin color if we came from just two people? First off, there was Adam and eve, they had sons and daughters. Along the way Noah was born. He had three sons(my three sons , if any of you folk remember the t.v. series). Then came the flood and wiped everyone off the face of the earth, except Noah and his family. Once they settled onto dry land again, Noah and his family went forth and became fruitful and multiplied. Thus the tower of babel. This takes care of the language situation. Now your question was about skin color, not language. If you have ever studied biology, then you would know the answer to your own question .
Reply:I believe that our skin color has changed over the years to adapt to wherever the person is

like the ppl in Africa have dark skin and coarse hair to adapt to where they live, whereas ppl in colder areas like Northern Europe are very white


Adam and Eve are not brother and sister did he give birth to her ?!

and there were no rules when Cain killed Abel was he put in jail?

how would you have come along if they didn't have sex!!


Why do people say that the only difference between the races is skin color? Miseducation or stupidity?

I often hear people say that the only difference between the races is skin color. This statement shows a stunning level of ignorance about science and history. There are hundreds of scientifically provable differences between the races. These include hair texture, bone structure, muscle structure, skin thickness, hormone levels, resistence levels to certain deseases, average intelligence, etc., etc., etc. The list is too long to type out here.

In fact, a Poodle and a Doberman Pinscher are more closely related genetically than a white and black person are. This is a scientific fact, but you don't hear anyone say that the only differece between a Poodle and a Doberman Pinscher is the color of their fur. So why do people continue say this b.s. when it comes to the different human races? Does living in a fantasy world make them feel better? Or did they hear that phrase on TV and because they have no critical thinking ability, they were stupid enough to believe it?

Why do people say that the only difference between the races is skin color? Miseducation or stupidity?
Thanks for having the bravery to risk being misunderstood as racist and bringing that point up. You're abseoutely right that there are real physiological differences among people's whose evolutionary ancestry is off differing geographical space, no doubt due at least in part to evolutionary adaptive straegies to climactic and geological conditions. The question is, then, to what degree society, culture, and history have shaped how these differences manifest. Also keep in mind that these noted differences apply to populations as a whole (i.e. the average amount of testosterone in males is higher in Africans than Europeans, whose are higher than Asians), but that's not true of individuals. Intelligence can be hard to measure objectively because the paradigm of what is considered "intelligent" has been decided by a certain social system.
Reply:my blood is red, how about yours?
Reply:It all depends on whom you're talking to. Some people do notice cultural differences. In marketing that's what they concentrate on.
Reply:Fundamental difference.
Reply:While there are more differences than skin colour, there are less differences than you might think.

Within the Caucasian race, for example, there are a lot of striking differences. My wife and I are both Caucasian. My skin is easily burnt, and hers isn't. My children are very tall, from my wife's family.

A lot of alcoholics in my ancestry. I had difficulty with that too, as a youngster. Irish blood? Is that a race? or simply a national characteristic because of the way the Iris here treated? I don't know.

There are more differences between 2 Causcasians, sometimes, than there are between certain Caucasians and Africans.

God is a God of infinite variety in the way He made us. Then human vices have caused problems that have been handed down to descendents as well. Different religions have left the door open for different peoples to be more open to one particular vice than another.

It has been suggested by scientists that the whole question of racial differences might be very artificial.
Reply:I was with you until you got to intelligence. You are toying with ignorance yourself. Cause that is not scientifically accepted. But there are definately bilogical differences besides just skin color.

Oh yeah, Look over my questions, I just found out today that Irish people people come from Africans.
Reply:Actually human DNA is 99.9% alike no matter what race. It has been found that the percentage of genetic differences between people of different races is no greater than the percentage for people in the same family. There is only 3 sections in our DNA that determines our race including our hair texture, skin tone, facial features etc. All of the other sections of DNA are the same.

Oh you sneaked average intelligence in there (yes the proper word is sneaked not snuck, snuck is a made up word. Hmmm how did a black person with inferior intelligence know that?) Please, have you been reading "Bell Curve" or "The Reality of Human Differences"? Give me a break with all of the "scientific racism" Have you not ever taken an IQ test? Well I have and although my IQ is 134 I don't see how a test with puzzles and patterns can tell a person how intelligent they are. If I give an IQ test to a person living in the Congo who has never had any form of modern technology, formal education, and doesn't know a puzzle from the man in the moon of course his IQ will be much lower than the average. IQ tests are socially relevant; if you took an IQ test relevant to their environment how well would you do. Furthermore, does nature or nurture determine IQ? And don't tell me that the scores are adjusted to take into consideration their environment. It has been shown that IQ increases as you learn more. Nutrition also affects IQ. Why are impoverished people more likely to have lower IQ's? People have discounted that by saying the reason for their poverty is the lack of intelligence. It is so much easier to say someone is just inferior than to think abstractly. Also, remember that much of the research on IQ and race was done in the 20's-60's. I find it very hard to believe, especially after growing up in a predominately white community where I was usually more intelligent than my peers, that white people are genetically more intelligent than Blacks or other races. From what I have seen living the first 10 years of my life in a predominately black area and the last 15 in a predominately white area, it has more to do with the disparities between the quality of education in black schools as compared to white.

But I see you're just a devil's advocate so you are good with me brother.
Reply:Are u sooo bored that u have to take time to find reasons on why to dis-like someone b/c of there color. God made everyone ALIKE he. If u want somethin to think about think about y girls are dating girls or y boys r dating boys nothin wrongs with it in my eyes but God made Adam and Eve not Adam and Steve, he also said something about no gay relationsips in the bible. But he didnt say anything about COLOR. Get over ur self there r goin to b different races dating different races or a different race hangin out with another different race.
Reply:If you know this to be incorrect, then why ask? You've obviously answered the question for yourself. Often-times people say this to take a stab at prejudiced, racist folk out there who cannot attack other cultures or ethnicities for anything but the color of their skin or the beliefs that they have. I say, if they feel a certain way about a group of people, good for you, but don't expect to voice and have EVERYONE be okay with it. Come on now, freedom to say the stupid **** they say and others have the freedom to tear em' a new one.
Reply:The statement is neither miseducation or stupidity... it is fact. Our differences are basically "skin deep" as the variances in our degrees of melanin are the result of genetic adaptations. God created us and we are ALL of the same species which makes us of the same race -- that being homo sapiens -- we share the same DNA coding with variances for hair texture and the like. You are miseducated as to the differences in intelligences... no particular ethnic group (notice I did not use the misnomer "race") has more intelligence or physical superiority than another. Don't let racism and prejudice rob you of loving your fellow human being and appreciating their dignity. Everyone is equally worthy of respect for we are all created in God's image.
Reply:I see where you're coming from,and you are right, in a family no 2 children are alike even twins are different in some way but the point is that they come from the same roots and, it can be said that they share a common unity and love.In the human family we see all sorts of physical differences as you mention, due mainly to genetics in response to geographical, cultural and other factors.When someone says that the only difference between races is the color of the skin,what they are really trying to say is that we are all more alike deep down inside than not, that culture and genes notwithstanding we all have needs,feelings,goals and desires in common and that that should make us a family.
Reply:I don't think people who say that mean it literally. When people say that, they're pointing out the fact that appearances shouldn't matter and that we're all human.
Reply:Races. You have dogs, do they have different caracteristics? That answer your question in a nutshell. Yes, if you compare the races, the black people scores the highest. Why do you think blacks where enslaved? We woork harder, think smarter then any other race. We also look better, thats why the "masters" before usually had a black mistress.
Reply:i think education level is more relevant than skin when deciding differences that cause drama among races (such as crime rate, welfare etc)

it just so happens some races have more access to higher education, and push the value of education more upon their children than others.

but yeah, there is more differences between races, but imo alot of it is culture and the environment in which they grow up. Take a black kid, raise him in a white family that accepts him, and he will grow up just like the family that cares for him.

environment is key to learned social behaviors, intelligence etc. yes biology does have an effect, but i think by far, environment in which a child grows up has a bigger effect.